Wakes Colne History
WAKES COLNE HISTORY
WAKES COLNE (2,058 a. or 833 ha.) lies on thenorth bank of the river Colne c. 8 miles west of Colchester. The ancient parish (1,935 a.) wasbounded by the Colne on part of the south, asmall tributary on much of the west, and theCambridge (earlier Jennyes or Loveney Hall) (fn. 69) brook on part of the north; the eastern boundarywith Fordham followed field boundaries. In themid 19th century the parish comprised two mainareas, separated by parts of Mount Bures and Chappel parishes, and four smaller detachedareas, three (6 a.) in Chappel and one (2 a.) inWhite Colne. (fn. 70) Those detachments dated fromthe 16th century or earlier. Land in the centreof the parish, near Wakes Colne green, which was in Bures Hamlet in 1534 had been incorporated into Wakes Colne by 1838. (fn. 71) Under theDivided Parishes Act of 1882, a total of 90 a.formerly in Chappel, 26 a. formerly in MountBures, and 2 a. formerly in White Colne weretransferred to Wakes Colne, and 6 a. formerlyin Wakes Colne was transferred to Chappel. (fn. 72) Nevertheless Wakes Colne remained an irregular shape, almost split into two by tongues of Chappel and Mount Bures.
Figure 21: Wakes Colne c. 1800
Wakes Colne occupies a ridge between thevalleys of the Colne and the Stour. The landrises from below 23 m. in the Colne valley to ahigh point of 71 m. just north of Wakes Colnegreen, then slopes steeply to 35 m. in the valleyof the Cambridge brook. The eastern part of theparish slopes into the valley of a small tributaryof the Colne, then rises to 53 m. near CreppingHall. The higher land is boulder clay, but theColne, the Cambridge brook, and the brooknear Crepping Hall have all exposed bands ofLondon clay with Kesgrave sand and gravel intheir valleys. There is a narrow band of alluviumalong the Colne, and a larger patch of sand andgravel extends from the church to CreppingHall. (fn. 73)
The road from Colchester to Cambridgethrough Earls Colne and Halstead, turnpiked in1765, (fn. 74) runs along the southern edge of theparish. A network of minor roads and tracks,chief among them that running from Great Teyto Mount Bures, connects the scattered farmsteads to each other and to Wakes Colne green.Carriers and a horse-drawn omnibus ran alongthe Colchester road from Earls Colne toColchester in 1848, presumably stopping inWakes Colne. Arthur Hutley started a motor busservice from Coggeshall to Colchester throughthe Colnes c. 1915; by the 1930s EasternNational and Blackwell & Sons ran an hourlyservice. Blackwells was acquired by Hedingham& District Omnibus in 1965. The Hedinghamand Eastern National services were still runningin 1984. (fn. 75)
The Colchester, Stour Valley, Sudbury, andHalstead Railway company completed its linefrom Marks Tey to Sudbury through WakesColne in 1849, (fn. 76) and the Colne Valley andHalstead Railway company completed their linefrom Chappel station to Halstead in 1860. (fn. 77) TheSudbury line was still open in 1996; the Halsteadline closed to passenger traffic in 1961 and togoods traffic in 1965. (fn. 78) Chappel station, actuallyin Wakes Colne, was opened in 1849 and rebuiltin 1891. In 1969, when closure of the lineseemed imminent, the buildings were acquiredby the Stour Valley Railway PreservationSociety which in 1986 became the East AnglianRailway Museum. In 1996 the Museum ownedthe whole site except the track and platform forthe Marks Tey-Sudbury trains. (fn. 79)
A site overlooking the brook on the westernboundary of the parish was occupied from theRoman to the later medieval period. (fn. 80) By the10th century Wakes Colne formed part of alarge estate which took its name from the riverColne, and which belonged to the ealdormen ofEssex. Crepping, presumably a separate estate,extended into the later parishes of Fordham andChappel. Its name contains the element 'ingas','followers of', with a lost personal name, andmay date from the early or mid Anglo-Saxonperiod. (fn. 81)
In 1086 there was a recorded population of25, including 3 servi, on Wakes Colne manor,and 14 on the 4 estates which formed the laterCrepping manor. (fn. 82) In 1349 at least 13 tenants ofCrepping manor had died by summer, presumably of the plague, 6 of them without heirs. (fn. 83) There were 106 poll-tax payers in Wakes Colnein 1377, (fn. 84) but the numerous unrepaired ordemolished houses reported in the 15th centuryand the early 16th (fn. 85) suggest a declining popu-lation then. The parish apparently escaped manyof the 17th-century epidemics, but the numberof burials in 1694, 1695, and 1696 was doublethe average for the decade. Thirty-two households were assessed for hearth tax in 1671 andanother 24 were exempt, (fn. 86) implying a populationof c. 200, a greater number than that suggestedby the 89 adults reported in 1676. (fn. 87) Smallpoxprobably accounted for above average numbersof deaths in 1712, 1737, and 1738, (fn. 88) but thepopulation rose fairly steadily throughout the18th century and the earlier 19th to reach 372in 1801 and 535 in 1861. It fell to 482 in 1901,when there was concern at the number of youngmen leaving the parish, (fn. 89) then rose to 501 in1911. The population remained under 500 formost of the 20th century, falling as low as 435in 1961, and was still only 462 in 1981; in 1991it was 546. (fn. 90)
Woodland clearance in the early Middle Agesled to a pattern of dispersed settlement, muchof it around greens or tyes. By 1777 WakesColne, Allcocks, and Parkers (later Parkhurst)greens, still totalling c. 14 a., marked the site ofan earlier and larger area of common grazing onthe high ground near the centre of the parish. (fn. 91) Encroachments on the greens started in the 17thcentury or earlier, and the last remnants ofWakes Colne green were inclosed in the 1930s. (fn. 92) Pump Hall on Middle Green incorporates theremains of a late 15th- or 16th-century housewith hall and cross wing, facing south onto a sitewhich was presumably then open but which wasbuilt on in the 17th century when the survivingOld Gables was erected. The 16th-centuryLyntons and the late 16th- or early 17th-centuryJordans Farm, on Lower Green, mark theformer north and south edges of the green.Lyntons comprises a main range, which contained the hall and service rooms, and a parlourwhich was roofed as a cross wing. A stack andupper floor were put into the hall in the 17thcentury. At Jordans the hall may originallyhave had a smoke bay, which was later replacedby a brick stack. The northern edge of Parkersgreen is marked by the small, later 16th-centuryhouse since divided into June and Wenoahcottages. It was of standard three-room plan; thehall and service rooms in the eastern cottage aredivided from the parlour in the western by thestack which, with the upper floor in the hall, wasprobably inserted early in the 17th century.
Figure 22: Wakes Colne Green, with fishers and its gardens in 1825
There are three moated sites in the parish,including the manor houses of Crepping andLittle Loveney Halls. The third moat, on highground on the eastern side of Allcocks green,may have surrounded the house occupied byGilbert the reeve in 1400 and by the Allcockfamily in the 17th century. The house, demolished by the early 20th century, was rebuilt inthe late 15th century as a hall with chamberblocks at either end. (fn. 93)
Several other substantial, late medieval,timber-framed houses survive; most of them areof two storeys. The later 15th-century WatchHouse, on the north-west corner of the crossroads north of Chappel bridge, was occupied bygentlemen in the 17th century and was one ofthe largest houses in the parish, with fivehearths, in 1671. (fn. 94) The two cross wings retaincrown-post roofs, but the roof to the central,hall, range was renewed in the 18th century.Earlier, perhaps in the later 16th century, a largechimney stack was inserted into the former crosspassage. The western, service, wing was remodelled and extended northwards in the early 17thcentury. Wakes Colne Place, formerly Bunners,on the Colchester road was a landmark by1501. (fn. 95) Behind the north and west fronts of thesurviving house are timber-framed ranges,apparently of a substantial L-shaped house of17th-century or earlier origin. Shortly before1813 William Brett (fn. 96) refronted the house inbrick, greatly extended it to the east and south,and refitted it internally. Lane Farm, on LaneRoad leading from the Colchester road to WakesColne green, is a late 14th- or early 15th-centuryhall-and cross-wing house which was remodelled in the 16th century and encased in brickin the early 19th. (fn. 97) The north-east corner of thenearby Fridays Cottage incorporates part of a15th-century parlour cross wing. One bay of thehall range, which has a cambered tie beam anda plain crown post, survives against its west side,and there is a 17th-century addition on the southside. Old House Farm, Station Road, (fn. 98) incorporates a possibly 14th-century cross wing towhich a hall and another cross wing were addedin the 15th century; both cross wings are of twostoreys. The house was much restored in themid 20th century.
Normandy Hall west of Parkhurst Green, formerly Normans Farm and the house for a copy hold estate in 1635, was built in the early 14thcentury as an aisled hall with a cross wing. (fn. 99) Fishers, the house of a medieval freehold, liessouth of Allcocks green. A house, built byWilliam and Mary Potter in 1635 with a principal room on either side of a large stack withoctagonal chimneys, forms the south-westcorner of the present L-shaped building. (fn. 1) Thebuilding was extended southwards in the mid17th century and remodelled c. 1768, when Johnand Elizabeth Brett built a wing to the west. (fn. 2) There was extensive refenestration and someinternal refitting in the later 19th century, andsome remodelling in the later 20th century. Adovehouse, recorded in 1914, (fn. 3) was demolishedc. 1973.
Further north, Inworth House, originallycomprising a hall and two ends under a singleroof, is of the late 15th or early 16th century. Itappears to take its name, first recorded for anearby field in 1838, (fn. 4) from a family rather thanfrom an early settlement. Great Loveney Hall,a 16th- or early 17th-century farmhouse near thenorthern parish boundary, was reconstructedand encased in brick in the 19th century. Theapproach drive and the garden walls appear toderive from a formal 18th-century arrangement.The south-eastern quarter of Oak Farm, in thesouth-east corner of the parish, is probably theparlour cross wing of an early 16th-centuryhouse whose main range abutted its west side.The wing is jettied along its south end and hasa large brick stack against the east wall. Againstthe north wall is a slightly later block which hada jetty along its west side and an external doorway in the north-east corner. In the mid 19thcentury a brick range containing principal roomswas built along the west side of the two oldblocks.
Twentieth-century infilling has created asmall village along the Colchester and Stationroads. There has also been infilling, includingcouncil houses of the 1970s, along Middle andLower Green roads. (fn. 5)
An alehouse was licensed in 1596, and tipplinghouses and unlicensed beer-sellers were reported throughout the 17th century. No WakesColne houses were licensed between 1769 and1823, the parish presumably being served byinns in Chappel. (fn. 6) The Gardener's Arms onWakes Colne green, recorded in 1838, closed in1974. The Sunderland Arms, beside the railwaystation by 1863, became the Railway inn c. 1890,and closed in 1964. (fn. 7) There was a small breweryon Wakes Colne green from 1861 or earlier until1914. (fn. 8) Since 1986 an annual beer festival hasbeen held at the East Anglian Railway Museum.
In the early 20th century most houses inthe parish used shallow wells, although streamwater was pumped by ram to many of thelarger houses. (fn. 9) A water tower was built on thenorthern edge of the parish in 1935-6. (fn. 10) Electricity was supplied by Colchester Borough from1933. (fn. 11)
A friendly society in Wakes Colne recordedin 1839 continued in 1844. (fn. 12) The Aldham andUnited Parishes Insurance Society had members in the parish from 1827 until c. 1951. (fn. 13) Areading room, opened with over 20 members in1907, had closed by 1912. (fn. 14) Bowls were playedillegally in 1529, and in 1538 a game of 'le camp',an early form of football, resulted in bloodshed. (fn. 15) Since the 1950s international motor cyclescrambles have been held in a field near theCambridge brook.
Wakes Colne was one of the manors belongingto Joan, princess of Wales, which was attackedby the insurgents in 1381. (fn. 16) There is no evidenceto support the local tradition that Kitty O'Shea,mistress and later wife of the Irish leader C. S.Parnell and sister of C. P. Wood of Wakes Hall,stayed at Lane Farm. (fn. 17)
MANORS. A manor of 1 hide and 30 a. in Colneheld by Assorin in 1066 was held by RobertMalet in demesne in 1086, and with Robert'sother lands formed the honor of Eye. (fn. 18) Themanor was held of that honor c. 1210, and in1274 when it was said formerly to have beenheld of the honor of Boulogne. (fn. 19) The over-lordship was not recorded thereafter.
Henry II granted the manor in 1174 to Saherde Quency, (fn. 20) from whom it passed to his brotherRobert (d. c. 1197) and to Robert's son Saherde Quency, earl of Winchester. (fn. 21) The mesnelordship descended from Saher to his son Roger,earl of Winchester (d. 1264), (fn. 22) and then toRoger's eldest daughter and coheir, Margaret,wife of William de Ferrers earl of Derby, whosegreat-grandson, Robert Fitz Walter of WoodhamWalter, held in 1328. (fn. 23) Walter Fitz Walter, LordFitz Walter, was in dispute with the demesnelord in 1393. (fn. 24) The lordship was last recordedin 1422. (fn. 25)
Before 1219, Saher de Quency gave Colne tohis younger son Robert. (fn. 26) Robert died before1264, and the manor passed with his youngerdaughter Hawise to Baldwin Wake, who waslord in 1274 and from whose family it wasnamed WAKES COLNE. (fn. 27) Baldwin (d. 1282)and Hawise (d. c. 1285) were succeeded by theirson John, Lord Wake (d. 1300), (fn. 28) and by John'sson Thomas (d. 1349) whose widow Blancheheld in dower until her death in 1380. (fn. 29) Themanor descended, with the barony of Wake, toJoan, countess of Kent and later princess ofWales. (fn. 30) She was succeeded in 1385 by her sonfrom her first marriage, Thomas Holland (d.1397), whose widow Alice held in dower untilher death in 1416. (fn. 31) Wakes Colne then passed totheir daughter Margaret, wife of Thomas ofLancaster, duke of Clarence. She died in 1440and was succeeded by her son John Beaufort,earl and later duke of Somerset (d. 1444), by hisdaughter Margaret, wife of Edmund Tudor, andby her son Henry VII. (fn. 32) Henry VIII granted themanor to his illegitimate son Henry FitzRoy,duke of Richmond and Somerset (d. 1536), andthen in 1544 to John de Vere, earl of Oxford. (fn. 33)
The manor descended with the earldom ofOxford until 1580 when Edward de Vere sold itto William Tiffin. (fn. 34) Tiffin (d. 1617) was succeeded by his great nephew, another WilliamTiffin, who sold Wakes Colne in 1635 to SirJohn Jacob. (fn. 35) Jacob sold it in 1646 to HarbottleGrimston, later Sir Harbottle, Bt. (fn. 36) WakesColne then descended with West Bergholt until1719 when William Grimston (formerlyLuckyn) sold it to John London. John was succeeded in 1735 by his son Samuel London. (fn. 37) Samuel, or his son of the same name, died in1778 and was followed by his widow Mary (d.1783), who devised the manor to her niecesElizabeth, wife of William Tice, and Mary, wifeof John Field. In 1784 the manor was settled onWilliam Tice and John Field, who in 1808 soldit to John Lay, tenant of Crepping Hall. (fn. 38) Lay(d. 1819) devised the manor to his nephew JohnJosselyn whose trustees sold it in 1823 to HenrySkingley. Skingley died in 1858 and was succeeded by his son Henry. (fn. 39) The manor, but notthe land, was sold in 1869 to Joseph Beaumont,who enfranchised most of the copyholds. (fn. 40) Itwas sold by the trustees of G. F. Beaumont in1964. (fn. 41) In 1996 the lord was G. R. Horne.
Thomas Wake had a house in Wakes Colneby 1348, presumably, like its 16th-century successor, on the north bank of the Colne. By 1403the hall, chapel, and several other rooms werebeing used as barns, and glass had been removedfrom windows, including those of the oratorynear the great chamber. Other buildings, including the great solar, were leased to a tenant. (fn. 42) Thehouse was still occupied by tenants in the early16th century, but the Tiffins lived there. (fn. 43) From1708 it was leased as a farm house, and before1730 had been partly burnt down. (fn. 44) A new farm-house was built on the site in the 19th century. (fn. 45) Between 1825 and 1838 Henry Skingley built anew house on the north side of the Colchesterroad, of gault brick with a central portico and athree-storeyed tower on the east. (fn. 46) It was converted into a residential home for sufferers fromcerebral palsy in 1964. (fn. 47)
There was a park by 1325, (fn. 48) presumably northand west of the manor house where three fieldswere still called Park in 1838. (fn. 49) It seems to havebeen restored, and extended southwards acrossthe Colne, in the mid 19th century, (fn. 50) presum-ably by the first Henry Skingley.
In 1066 Alward held 68½ a. and 1 yardlandin CREPPING which in 1086 was held byRichard son of Gilbert de Clare and Modwin. (fn. 51) The overlordship descended with the honor ofClare to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester andHertford (d. 1314). (fn. 52) Roger Mortimer, earl ofMarch, was overlord at his death in 1398, (fn. 53) andthe overlordship was last recorded in 1426. (fn. 54)
Walter of Windsor held land in Creppingwhich escheated to the crown in 1186. (fn. 55) By 1195Walter of Crepping probably held the estate,later two thirds of a knight's fee in Colne andCrepping. (fn. 56) By 1209 he held a further yardlandin Crepping of Bury St. Edmund's abbey, presumably the 36-a. estate which the abbey heldin Colne in 1066 and 1086. (fn. 57) He or his predecessors had probably also acquired 94 a. in Colneand Fordham held by 5 sokemen in 1066 and byRichard de Clare in 1086. (fn. 58) Walter was succeeded before 1227 by Alan of Crepping, whoc. 1230 held land in Wakes Colne and Fordhamof Michael of Fordham. Michael granted thatestate to the Hospitallers, (fn. 59) but there is no laterevidence of the order's interest in Crepping orWakes Colne. Alan's son Walter forfeited themanor in 1266, but in 1274 and 1282 Walter'sson Hugh of Crepping was lord. (fn. 60) In 1307Hugh's son Walter granted Crepping to Henryand Margaret Bacon, but in 1324 Hugh son ofHugh Crepping conveyed the reversion toWilliam and Elizabeth Royston. (fn. 61) Hugh died in1340, and in 1342 Robert Perepoint becamelord. (fn. 62) In 1356 Peter and Elizabeth Perepointconveyed the reversion of the manor to John deVere, earl of Oxford. (fn. 63) The manor descendedwith the earldom of Oxford until the later 16thcentury. (fn. 64)
In 1548 John de Vere, earl of Oxford, granteda 60-year lease of Crepping Hall to his servantJohn Turner, (fn. 65) and in 1585 Turner's widowChristine bought the reversion. (fn. 66) She died in1605, and was succeeded by her daughterMargaret Powell, and by Margaret's son JohnSmith (both d. 1621). (fn. 67) The manor then passedto John's nephews Stephen (d. 1670) andThomas Smith (d. 1684). (fn. 68) Thomas's son,another Thomas (d. 1721) was succeeded by hisniece Mary Tendring (d. 1735) who devised themanor to her cousin Thomas Alexander (d.1747). He devised it to his nephew CharlesAlexander who died in 1775 and was followed byCharles Alexander Crickitt (d. 1803) and his wifeSarah (d. 1828). (fn. 69) Harriet Alexander Crickitt (d.1868) devised the manor to H. B. Harvey. (fn. 70) J. L.Beaumont was lord in 1943. (fn. 71) The manor wassold in 1954 by the trustees of G. F. Beaumontto H. C. Percival of Wakes Colne, and sold againc. 1984 to E. B. Joiner of California. (fn. 72)
Crepping Hall, (fn. 73) which was formerly moated,retains a substantial part of an early 14th-century aisled hall, presumably built by theCrepping family. A two-centred headed doorway in the north end of the west aisle may haveled to a stair to a first floor solar in a continuationof the hall range, perhaps the adjoining chamberwhich was damaged with the hall in 1432. (fn. 74) Thatand the service end of the house appear to havebeen rebuilt in the later 16th century, probablyby the Turners. The eastern aisle of the hallwas removed, presumably to facilitate the fenestration of an inserted first floor. Additions,including a staircase, were made to the south inthe 18th century when there was some refitting,and there was further remodelling c. 1905. (fn. 75)
Part of the Little Colne estate held of RobertMalet by Walter of Caen in 1086 (fn. 76) extended intoWakes Colne where it formed the freehold orsubmanor of Serdeleshey or LOVENEYHALL. It was held of Colne Engaine manoruntil 1556 or later. (fn. 77) By the later 12th centuryWilliam de Cheney or his successors had enfeoffed Richard Blunville, whose great nephewWilliam Blunville disputed the estate withRichard Engaine between 1199 and 1201. (fn. 78) Another William Blunville held c. 1278. (fn. 79) Byc. 1380 the estate was called Loveney Hall, pre-sumably from an owner; c. 1440 it belonged toa Culpepper. (fn. 80) About 1503 Roger Draper sold'Loveney Hall and Sherdelous' to Edward Sulyard, (fn. 81) and in 1546 Edward's son Eustace conveyed the estate, then called a manor, to WilliamSidey. Sidey at once sold part of the estate, laterGreat Loveney Hall, to John Newton, (fn. 82) and therest to John Sidey. John Sidey devised themanor to his son, another John, who sold it in1574 to John Ball (d. 1602) and his son John (d.1621). (fn. 83) They were succeeded by another JohnSidey, whose widow held in 1646 with hersecond husband Thomas Harlakenden. (fn. 84) Theestate, still called a manor in 1698 and 1711, wascalled Little Loveney Hall by 1730. (fn. 85) Itbelonged to Osgood Hanbury (d. 1784) in 1768,and presumably descended with Inglesthorpesmanor in White Colne to O. B. Hanbury (d.1890). (fn. 86) It was farmed by H. C. Crook in 1902, (fn. 87) and belonged to his family in 1996. (fn. 88)
Little Loveney Hall lies close to the edge of alarge, waterfilled moat. The house has a threeroomed plan with lobby entry, of the late 16thor early 17th century. A large service wing wasadded to the east in the 18th century.
69P.N. Essex, 5; E.R.O., D/DU 351/1A. This article waswritten in 1996; architectural descriptions were compiled orrevised by A. P. Baggs. 70O.S. Maps 6", Essex, XVII, XVIII, XXVI, XXVII(1881 edn.); E.R.O., D/CT 103; above, fig. 12. 71P.R.O., E 134/4 Chas1/East5; E.R.O., D/DGw M3,rot. 30; ibid. D/P 37/28/7-8; D/P 88/1/1; ibid. D/CT 103. 72Census, 1891; O.S. Map 6", Essex, XVII. SE., XXVI.NE. (1881 edn.). 73O.S. Map 1/10,000, TL 93 SW., TL 92 NW., TL 83SE., TL 82 NE. 74J. M. L. Booker, 'Essex Turnpike Trusts' (DurhamUniv. M. Litt. thesis, 1979), 202 and maps at end of vol. 75Axten, 'Hist. Public Transport in Colch. Area', 6-7,25, 44, 46, 51-2, 62-5, 82, 85. 76D. I. Gordon, Regional Hist. Railways of G. B. v.(Eastern Counties), 154. 77E. P. Willingham, From Construction to Destruction,3; E. Carter, Hist. Geography of Railways of Brit. Isles,140-1, 275. 78Willingham, From Construction to Destruction, 193-4. 79Inf. from East Anglian Railway Mus. 80Inf. from Owen Bedwin, E.C.C. Planning Dept., andMr. I. Stratford; cf. E.C.C., SMR 8624, 8776, 14391. 81P.N. Essex, 379, 383; C. Hart, Early Chart. Essex,pp. 11, 19, 23; Essex Tribute, ed. K. Neale, 64. 82V.C.H. Essex, i. 451, 480-1, 550, 560, 573. 83E.R.O., D/DBm M3, rott. 42, 43d. 84P.R.O., E 179/107/58. 85E.R.O., D/DBm M7, passim; D/DGw M1, rott. 4, 8,11d.-12; M2, rott. 3, 7; M3, rot. 21. 86Ibid. Q/RTh 5. 87Compton Census, ed. Whiteman, 52. 88E.R.O., D/P 88/1/1-2; D/P 88/12/1. 89Census, 1801-1901; A. F. J. Brown, Meagre Harvest,228. 90Census, 1921-1991. 91Essex Map (1777); E.R.O., D/CT 103, 103A. 92Inf. from Mr. I. Stratford. 93R.C.H.M. Essex, iii. 226; P.R.O., SC 6/839/21;E.R.O., D/DGw M2, rot. 24; D/DGw M4-5. 94E.R.O., D/DGw M4; ibid. D/ACR 11, f. 196; ibid.Q/RTh 5. 95Ibid. D/ACR 1, f. 27v. 96Ibid. D/DGw M12, f. 276v. 97E.A.T. 3rd ser. xv. 160. 98Below, plate 30. 99E.A.T. 3rd ser. xxviii. 240-3; E.R.O., D/DU 594. 1Initials and date painted on fireplace bressumer. 2Initials and date in roundel in the plaster of the westfront. 3E.R. xl. 23; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1914). 4E.R.O., D/CT 103, 103A. 5O.S. Map 1/10,000, TL 83 SE. (1977 and 1987 edns.). 6E.R.O., Q/SBa 1/37; ibid. Q/RLv 24-79; ibid. Q/SR135/4, 353/38, 371/19, 374/25, 424/23; above, Chappel,Intro. 7Ibid. D/CT 103, 103A; White's Dir. Essex (1863), 163;Kelly's Dir. Essex (1866 and later edns.); E.R.O., sale cat.B4746; ibid. D/DU 116/49; inf. from Mr. 1. Stratford. 8I. Peaty, Essex Brewers, 112. 9Geol. Survey, Water Supply of Essex (1916), 286; inf.from Mr. I. Stratford. 10Inf. from Mrs. Ida McMaster. 11E.R.O., Colch. Boro. Mun., Electricity Supply Cttee.Min. Bk. 1929-34, Annual Rep. 1933. 12Ibid. Q/RSf 10. 13Ibid. Acc. C445 (uncat.). 14Ibid. T/P 181/3/15; Kelly's Dir. Essex (1910, 1912). 15E.R.O., D/DGw M3, rott. 23, 25, 32d. 16Cal. Pat. 1381-5, 78-9. 17F. S. L. Lyons, Fall of Parnell 1890-1 (Studies inIrish Hist. 2nd ser. i), passim. 18V.C.H. Essex, i. 550; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 43-4. 19Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), ii. 504; Rot. Hund. (Rec.Com.), i. 140. 20Pipe R. 1174 (P.R.S. xxii), 126. 21Colne Cart. pp. 52, 90; Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), ii.504; Complete Peerage, xii (2), 747-8. 22Cal. Inq. p.m. i, p. 255; Complete Peerage, xii (2),753-4. 23Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, p. 127; Complete Peerage, iv.197-203; v. 474-5; xii (2), 751-4. 24P.R.O., SC 6/839/20. 25Ibid. C 139/7, no. 54. 26Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i. 432; Close R. 1234-7, 47. 27Cal. Inq. p.m. i, p. 187; Complete Peerage, xii (2), 300;Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 139. 28Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 262; Cal. Pat. 1292-1301, 296,303; Cal. Close, 1296-1302, 125. 29Cal. Inq. p.m. v, p. 258; ix, pp. 204, 208; xv, p. 182;Cal. Close, 1349-54, 53. 30Cal. Inq. p.m. x, pp. 45, 53; Complete Peerage, vii.148-50. 31Cal. Inq. p.m. xvi, p. 111; xvii, p. 309; Cal. Close,1396-9, 248; Complete Peerage, vii. 156. 32P.R.O., C 139/101, no. 73; Cal. Pat. 1441-6, 349;Complete Peerage, iii. 259; vii. 158-62; xii (1), 44-8; L.P. Hen. VIII, i (2), p. 1042. 33L. & P. Hen. VIII, xv, pp. 166, 346; xix (1), p. 286;P.R.O., E 318/17/828. 34Cal. Pat. 1547-8, 379; 1578-80, p. 306; E.R.O.,D/DH VI B 4. 35E.R. xxxix. 100-2; E.R.O., D/DH VI B 5, 16; D/DHtT75/1. 36E.R.O., D/DH VI B 20; D/DHt T75/4. 37Ibid. D/DHt T75/11-12; D/DGw M9; D/DPr 345;Morant, Essex, ii. 223. Above, West Bergholt, Manors. 38E.R.O., D/DGw M11, p. 105; D/DGw M12, p. 29;D/DHt T75/18. 39Ibid. D/DHt T75/18; D/DBm T5A; D/DGw M13,pp. 36, 396; D/DHw T105; ibid. D/Z 2/14/9; Gent. Mag.cxlii (1), 686. 40E.R.O., D/DB T1005; Sale Cat. 1991, in privatepossession. 41E.C.L. Chelm., sale cat., 3rd sale of Beaumont manors. 42P.R.O., C 135/97, no. 22; ibid. E 318/17/28; E.R.O.,D/DGw M1, rott. 8, 10; Essex Map (1777). 43P.R.O., REQ 2/84/34; REQ 2/92/18. 44E.R.O., D/DH VI B24-5; ibid. T/P 195/11. 45Ibid. sale cat. C626. 46Ibid. D/DE1 P55; ibid. D/CT 103; White's Dir. Essex.(1848), 145; Dept. of Env., Building List. 47Eve. Gaz. 9 May 1989. 48Cal. Pat. 1324-7, 235; below, this par., Econ. Hist. 49E.R.O., D/CT 103. 50Ibid. D/CT 71 (1840) does not show the parkextending into Chappel. 51V.C.H. Essex, i. 560, 573. 52Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307, p. 206; Cal. Inq. p.m. v,p. 348. 53Cal. Inq. p.m. xvii, p. 444. 54Cal. Close, 1422-9, 248-9. 55Pipe R. 1186 (P.R.S. xxxvi), 12; Pipe R. 1189 (Rec.Com.), 21; V.C.H. Essex, vi. 9. 56Pipe R. 1195 (P.R.S. n.s. vi), 14; Feet of F. Essex, i. 24. 57Feet of F. Essex, i. 44; V.C.H. Essex, i. 451. 58V.C.H. Essex, i. 480-1. 59Feet of F. Essex, i. 81; Cart. St. John of Jerusalem, i,p. 313. 60Feet of F. Essex, i. 91, 113; Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307,p. 206; Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 139; Cal. Pat. 1281-92, 45. 61P.R.O., CP 40/164, rot. 347; Feet of F. Essex, ii. 242. 62E.R.O., D/DBm M3, rott. 22 and d., 27. 63Ibid. D/DBm T5/15; D/DPr 154; Feet of F. Essex,iii. 113. 64Cal. Close, 1409-13, 347; 1422-9, 248-9; Rot. Parl.vi. 228; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/17. 65E.R.O., D/DBm T5/23. 66P.R.O., PROB 11/61, f. 274; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/28;Feet of F. Essex, vi. 32. 67P.R.O., C 142/447, no. 9; C 142/396, no. 146; E.R.O.,D/DBm T5/31-4. 68Morant, Essex, ii. 57, 223; E.R.O., D/DBm T5/35;D/DBm T5A; D/DBm M11-12; P.R.O., C 2/Jas1/P6/25;E.R. viii. 81-2. 69E.R.O., D/DBm M13, M17-18; ibid. D/Z 2/14/9;E.R. viii. 83-4; Morant, Essex, ii. 57, 223. 70E.R.O., D/DBm T16. 71E.R. lii. 159. 72Ibid. lxiv. 9; E.C.L. Chelm., Sale Cat., BeaumontManors; ibid. Manorial Auctioneers' Partnership, Sale Cat.spring 1991, particulars of Wakes Colne manor; inf. fromMr. I. Stratford. 73Below, plate 28. 74E.R.O., D/DBm M7, rot. 5. 75Ibid. D/RLw M1/3, p. 103. 76V.C.H. Essex, i. 550. 77E.R.O., D/DC 9/7A. 78Cur. Reg. R. i. 87, 314, 367, 474, 477. 79Cal. Inq. Misc. 1219-1307, p. 334. 80E.R.O., D/DPr 5, p. 64; D/DPr 9; P.N. Essex, 383. 81E.R.O., D/DC 9/7A. 82Ibid. D/DU 351/1A; Feet of F. Essex, v. 220; vi. 167,173; P.R.O., C 3/341/33; deeds in possesion of Mr. and Mrs.D. T. Prestney. 83E.R.O., D/DU 351/1a; Feet of F. Essex, iv. 286;P.R.O., C 2/Eliz/S18/50; C 2/Jas 1/B26/60; C 3/158/15; C78/23, no. 4; cf. below, Little Horkesley, Manors. 84E.R.O., T/B 548/1. 85P.R.O., CP 25/2/829/9 Wm. III, Hil., no. 35; CP25/2/924/12 Anne, Hil., no. 8; E.R.O., T/P 195/11. 86Morant, Essex, ii. 223; E.R.O., D/CT 103A; below,White Colne, manors. 87Kelly's Dir. Essex (1902). 88It was sold in 1997 to A. Howland Jackson.